December 06, 2007

High culture

High culture is a term, now used in a number of different ways in academic discourse, whose most common meaning is the set of cultural products, mainly in the Arts, held in the highest esteem by a culture, or denoting the culture of ruling social groups.[1][2]


Although it has a longer history in Continental Europe, the term was introduced into English largely with the publication in 1869 of Culture and Anarchy by Matthew Arnold, although he most often uses just "culture". Arnold defined culture as "the disinterested endeavour after man's perfection" (Preface) and most famously wrote that having culture meant to "know the best that has been said and thought in the world" - a specifically literary definition, also embracing Philosophy, which is now rather less likely to be considered an essential component of High Culture, at least in the English-speaking cultures. Arnold saw high culture as a force for moral and political good, and in various forms this view remains widespread, though far from uncontested. The term is contrasted with Popular culture or Mass culture and also with Traditional cultures, but by no means implies hostility to these.

T.S. Eliot's Notes Towards the Definition of Culture (1948) was an influential work which saw high culture and popular culture as necessary parts of a complete culture. The Uses of Literacy by Richard Hoggart (1957) was an influential work along somewhat the same lines, concerned with the cultural experience of those, like himself, who had come from a working-class background before university. In America, Harold Bloom has taken a more exclusive line in a number of works, as did F.R. Leavis earlier - both, like Arnold, being mainly concerned with literature, and unafraid to champion vociferously the literature of the Western canon.

High art

Much of High Culture consists of the appreciation of what is sometimes called High Art. This term is rather broader than Arnold's definition and besides Literature includes Music, Visual arts, especially Painting, and traditional forms of the Performing arts, now including some Cinema. The Decorative arts would not generally be considered High art.

The cultural products most regarded as forming part of High culture are most likely to have been produced during periods of High civilization, for which a large, sophisticated and wealthy urban-based society which provides a coherent & conscious aesthetic framework, and a large-scale milieu of training, and, for the visual arts, sourcing materials and financing work. All this is so that the artist is able, as near as possible, to realize his creative potential with as few as possible practical and technical constraints. Although the Western concept of High Culture naturally concentrates on the Graeco-Roman tradition, and its resumption from the Renaissance onwards, it would normally be recognised that such conditions existed in other places at other times. A tentative list of High Cultures, or cultures producing High art, might therefore be:

The Parthenon
The Parthenon

Promotion of High Culture

The term has always been susceptible to attack for elitism, and in response many proponents of the concept devoted great efforts to promoting High Culture among a wider public than the highly-educated bourgeoisie whose natural territory it was supposed to be. There was a drive, beginning in the 19th century, to open museums and concert halls to give the general public access to high culture. Figures such as John Ruskin and Lord Reith of the BBC in Britain, Leon Trotsky and others in Communist Russia, and many others in America and throughout the western world have worked to widen the appeal of elements of High Culture such as Classical music, Art by Old masters and the literary classics.

With the widening of access to university education, the effort spread there, and all aspects of High culture became the objects of academic study, which with the exception of the classics had not often been the case until the late 19th century. University Liberal arts courses still play an important role in the promotion of the concept of High culture, though often now avoiding the term itself.

Especially in Europe, governments have been prepared to subsidize High culture through the funding of Museums, Opera and Ballet companies, Orchestras, Cinema, public broadcasting stations such as BBC Radio 3, ARTE and in other ways. Organisations such as the Arts Council in Britain, and, in most European countries, whole Ministries administer these programmes. This includes the subsidy of new works by composers, writers and artists. There are also many private philanthropic sources of funding, which are especially important in the US.


High culture and its relation to Mass culture, have been, in different ways, a central concern of much theoretical work in Cultural studies, Critical theory, Media studies and Sociology, as well as Postmodernism and many strands of Marxist thought. It was especially central to the concerns of Walter Benjamin, whose 1935-6 essay The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction has been highly influential, as has the work of Theodor Adorno.

High culture has also been an important concept in political theory on Nationalism for writers such as Ernest Renan and Ernest Gellner, who saw it as a necessary component of a healthy national identity. Gellner's concept of a high culture was much broader than just the arts; he defined it in Nations and Nationalism (1983) as: "...a literate codified culture which permits context-free communication". This is a distinction between different cultures, rather than within a culture, contrasting high with simpler, agrarian low cultures.

Pierre Bourdieu's book: La Distinction (English translation: Distinction - A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste) (1979) is a study influential in Sociology of another much broader, class based, definition of high culture, or "taste", which includes etiquette, appreciation of fine food and wine, and even military service. This partly reflects a French, or Mediterranean, conception of the term which is different from the more serious-minded Anglo-German concept of Arnold, Benjamin, Leavis or Bloom.

List of museums


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Name City
Calgary Zoo Calgary
Glenbow Museum Calgary
Heritage Park Historical Village Calgary
Laurier House Calgary
The Military Museums Calgary
Royal Alberta Museum Edmonton
Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology Drumheller
Galt Museum & Archives Lethbridge

British Columbia

Name City
Canadian Museum of Rail Travel Cranbrook
Nicola Valley Museum and Archives Merritt
Museum of Anthropology Vancouver
Science World at TELUS World of Science Vancouver
Comox Air Force Museum Comox
Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Burnaby
Port Moody Station Museum Port Moody
Royal British Columbia Museum Victoria


Name City
Manitoba Museum Winnipeg
Mennonite Heritage Village Steinbach

New Brunswick

Newfoundland and Labrador

Nova Scotia


Name City
Allan Gardens Toronto
Art Gallery of Ontario Toronto
Bata Shoe Museum Toronto
Black Creek Pioneer Village Toronto
Bytown Museum Ottawa
Canada Agriculture Museum Ottawa
Canada Aviation Museum Ottawa
Canada Science and Technology Museum Ottawa
Canadian Canoe Museum Peterborough
Canadian Firefighters Museum Port Hope
Canadian Museum of Nature Ottawa
Canadian Postal Museum Ottawa
Canadian War Museum Ottawa
Casa Loma Toronto
Design Exchange Toronto
Elliott Avedon Museum & Archive of Games Waterloo
Fort York Toronto
Gardiner Museum of Ceramic Art Toronto
Gibraltar Lighthouse Toronto
Gibson House Toronto
Hockey Hall of Fame Toronto
National Gallery of Canada Ottawa
Ontario Science Centre Toronto
Peterborough Centennial Museum & Archives Peterborough
Riverdale Farm Toronto
Royal Military College of Canada Museum Kingston
Royal Ontario Museum Toronto
Scarborough Historical Museum Scarborough
Science North Sudbury
Todmorden Mills Heritage Museum Toronto
Toronto Aerospace Museum Toronto
Toronto Zoo Toronto
Victoria County Museum Lindsay
Windsor's Community Museum Windsor
York Museum Toronto

Prince Edward Island


Name City
Canadian Centre for Architecture Montreal
Canadian Museum of Civilization Gatineau
Canadian Railway Museum Saint-Constant
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts Montreal
Musee d'art contemporain de Montréal Montreal
Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec Quebec
Pointe-à-Callière Museum Montreal
Redpath Museum McGill University Montreal

[edit] Saskatchewan

Name City
Saskatchewan Railway Museum Saskatoon
The Evolution of Education Museum Prince Albert
Diefenbaker House Prince Albert


Northwest Territories


Yukon Territory

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See also: Museums in China
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See also: List of museums in Nanjing

Some prominent museums in China include:

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See List of museums in Egypt

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See also: Category:Museums in Hungary

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See Israel Museums Guide

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National Museum of History and Art

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See: List of museums in Singapore

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Sri Lanka

  • Ratnapura
    • Gems Museum

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See also: Basel, Berne, Lausanne, Lugano, St. Gallen, Zurich, Thun

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See: List of museums in the United States

See also

External links